The History of Plastic Bags: A photographer's experiments in the darkroom led to the creation of the original plastic. Alexander Parks has many hobbies, photography is one of them. In the 19th century, people couldn't buy ready-made photographic film and chemicals as they do today, and often had to make what they needed themselves. So every photographer must also be a chemist.
One of the materials used in photography is "collagen", which is a solution of "nitrocellulose", ie, a solution of nitrocellulose in alcohol and ether. At the time it was used to glue light-sensitive chemicals to glass to make the equivalent of today's photographic film.
In the 1850s, Parks looked at different ways of dealing with collodion. One day he tried mixing collodion with camphor. To his surprise, the mixing resulted in a bendable, hard material. Parks called the substance "Paxine," and that was the first plastic.
Parks made all kinds of objects out of "Paxine": combs, pens, buttons and jewelry prints. Parks, however, was not very business-minded and lost money on his own business ventures. In the 20th century, people began to discover new uses for plastics. Almost everything in the home can be made of some kind of plastic.
It was left to other inventors to continue to develop and profit from Parks' work. John Wesley Hayat, a printer from New York, saw the opportunity in 1868, when a company that made billiards complained of a shortage of ivory. Hayat improved the manufacturing process, and gave "Pakxin" a new name - "celluloid" (false ivory - translation). He got a ready market from billiard manufacturers, and it wasn't long before he was making a variety of products out of plastic.
Early plastics were prone to fire, which limited the range of products that could be made from it. The first plastic to successfully withstand high temperatures was "Bakerlite". Leo Backlund received the patent in 1909.
In 1909, Baekeland in the United States synthesized phenolic plastics for the first time. In the 1930s, nylon was introduced again, and it was called "a fiber composed of coal, air and water, thinner than spider silk, stronger than steel, and better than silk". Their appearance laid the foundation for the invention and production of various plastics thereafter. Due to the development of the petrochemical industry in the Second World War, the raw material of plastics replaced coal with petroleum, and the plastics manufacturing industry also developed rapidly.
Plastic is a very light substance that can be softened by heating it at a very low temperature, and it can be shaped into anything you want. Plastic products are bright in color, light in weight, not afraid of falling, economical and durable. Its advent not only brings a lot of convenience to people's lives, but also greatly promotes the development of the industry.
However, it is less than 100 years since the invention of plastics. If people were ecstatic about their birth at that time, now they have to take great pains to deal with these things that are flooded in life and pose a great threat to the living environment of human beings.
Plastics are chemical petroleum products derived from petroleum or coal that are difficult to degrade naturally once produced. Plastics will not rot and degrade for 200 years underground. A large amount of plastic waste is buried underground, which will destroy the permeability of the soil, make the soil compact, and affect the growth of plants. If livestock accidentally eat plastic mixed with feed or left in the wild, it can also cause death due to digestive tract obstruction.
At present, the annual output of plastics in China is 3000000 tons, and the consumption is more than 6000000 tons. The world's annual plastic production is 100 million tons. If the annual plastic waste volume is calculated at 15%, the world's annual plastic waste volume is 15 million tons. China's annual plastic waste volume is more than 1 million tons. The proportion accounts for 40%. Such a large amount of waste plastics are buried underground as garbage, which will undoubtedly bring more pressure to the arable land that is already lacking.
While plastics bring convenience to people's lives, they also bring unmanageable troubles to the environment. People call the disasters plastics bring to the environment "oil pollution".
At present, many countries have adopted the method of incineration (thermal energy regeneration) or reprocessing (product regeneration) to dispose of waste plastics. These two methods enable waste plastics to be recycled and achieve the purpose of saving resources. However, since waste plastics will generate harmful gases to the human body and pollute the environment when incinerated or reprocessed, it can be said that the disposal of waste plastics is still a major headache in environmental protection work.
Total restrictions on use
my country's notice requires all supermarkets, shopping malls, bazaars and other commodity retail places to implement a system of paid use of plastic shopping bags, and no plastic shopping bags shall be provided free of charge.
In addition, passenger trains, passenger ships, passenger cars, airplanes, stations, airports and tourist attractions are not allowed to provide ultra-thin plastic shopping bags (packaging bags) to passengers and tourists.
Plastic shopping bags must be clearly marked with prices to encourage companies to provide cloth bags for free
Plastic shopping bags must be clearly marked and charged separately. The notice stipulates that retail places of goods shall not provide free or collect plastic shopping bags in the total price of goods. At the same time, relevant departments will formulate specific management measures for the paid use of plastic shopping bags in commodity retail places, and gradually form a market environment for the paid use of plastic shopping bags.
The notice advocates re-carrying cloth bags and vegetable baskets, reusing durable shopping bags, and reducing the use of plastic bags. At the same time, enterprises should also simplify product packaging and use more green and environmentally friendly packaging bags. The notice also encourages enterprises and social forces to provide reusable shopping bags such as cloth bags to the masses for free.
The production and sale of ultra-thin plastic bags is prohibited nationwide. From June 1, 2008, a tax policy to curb waste plastic pollution will be formulated, and the production, sale and use of plastic shopping bags with a thickness of less than 0.025 mm will be banned nationwide in my country. thin plastic shopping bags).
Eco-friendly plastic bags
The invention of plastic bags has brought great convenience to human life, but more and more people do not know how to use environmental protection effectively, which has led to the globalization of plastic bag pollution. We call on everyone to use environmentally friendly plastic bags as much as possible for our The sky is bluer to make its own contribution.
Advantages compared with traditional plastic bags:
1. The water-soluble speed can be selected by design, completely dissolved in water, non-toxic and non-polluting;
2. Strong stretch and good tension;
3. High transparency and good gloss;
4. High softness and good touch;
5. Good oil and solvent resistance, heat sealable and printable;
6. Low air permeability and good gas barrier;
7, can add plastic buckle or self-adhesive bag;
8. Excellent antistatic performance, no dust suction, etc.